Level of Development (LOD) is About the People

LOD is a key aspect in the delivery of information to stakeholders.

The Level of Development (LOD) makes the value of the model evident to all parties and creates trust between different people working on the same project. When model information is more reliable, it becomes easier to understand for all the project stakeholders and decisions are made quicker.

By basing actions on quality information, people involved in the construction process can make decisions that are less risky and more productive. Conversely, incomplete information can create multiple questions and requests for further information (RFIs), which leads to reworks and rescheduling, increasing costs and delaying a project.


Three Things to Be in Place:


The content in the  BIM data and how the data is used.


Who does what and when information is deliverable.

LOD = the status of information included in the model

The status of information included in the model.

The Level of Development (LOD) specification is a reference used by Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) practitioners to specify and articulate, with a high level of clarity, the content and reliability of Building Information Models (BIMs).

The American Institute of Architects (AIA) introduced the concept of LOD in 2008 to define five different levels of development and detailing levels in a BIM model. At LOD 100, the pre-design stage, the model consists of basic 2D symbols used to signify an element’s existence. At LOD 200, the elements are partially defined by outlining their approximate quantity, size, shape and location. In LOD 300, elements are defined with exact dimensions and their relative positions, boosting precision. LOD 350 describes the information about an element precisely and outlines an element’s relation and connection with other components.

Model-based construction layouts work better for contractors when the building structure and systems are developed to the LOD 350 specification.

When you look at the cost division of large construction projects, it’s easy to see that quality 3D software already makes fabrication workflows more efficient. Detailing and fabrication together take up only about 15% of an average construction budget.

Because of this, financial managers often don’t spend time looking at the detailing and fabrication stages when they consider cost-savings. However, considerable savings can accumulate when proper prevention measures are put into place. .

For instance, when contractors begin planning and ordering materials with incomplete information, mistakes will occur. But when you’re using a BIM execution plan and LOD, double work is avoided as the need for requests for information (RFIs) is reduced. Additionally, a reduction in delays means a reduction in penalty fees. Overall, companies that use a combination of a BIM execution plan and LOD see an average of 25% less changes in orders, saving them time and money.

Every contract should include a BIM execution plan telling participants what information is going to be delivered by specified dates and which project teams will be able to use this information.

When LOD is incorporated into the BIM execution plan and specified in the contract, the project owners (public or private) are then able to create a clear plan from the delivery team to present information to stakeholders at each project milestone.